Indore is a major city and commercial center of the state of Madhya Pradesh in central India. Indore is located 190 km west of state capital Bhopal. It serves as the headquarters of both the Indore district and Indore division.
During the days of the Maratha Empire it was an important halt between the Deccan and Delhi. However after the death of Madhavrao Peshwa, the Maratha Empire disintegrated and Indore was declared the capital of the Holkar state, until Rani Ahilyabai Holkar moved the capital to Maheshwar.
Theories explaining the origins and etymology behind Indore's name differ. Formerly, the city of Indore was known by many different names. The first expected name of the city was Indreshwar which was named after the Indreshwar Temple in the city. Before this name was used, it was known as Ahilyanagari (The city of Queen Ahilyabai Holkar).
Year 1607 to 1794 - Ahilyanagari,
Year 1800 to 1950 - Indhur,
Year 1958 till Present - Indore
TThe present name, Indore, originated from the Indreshwar temple constructed in 1741 by Ved Manuj.
The founders of Indore were the ancestors of the present zamindars of the region which spread from the banks of Narmada to the borders of Rajputana. Their headquarters were at a village called Kampel. In Mughal times, the founders of these families received the title of Chaudhari, which established their claim to the land. In the 18th century, the control of Malwa passed to the Peshwa clan, and the Chaudharis came to be known as "Mandloi"s (derived from Mandals meaning districts). The Holkars conferred the title of Rao Raja upon the family.The family retained its possessions of royalty, which included having an elephant, Nishan, Danka and Gadi even after the advent of Holkars and also retained the right of performing the first puja of Dushera (Shami Pujan) before the Holkar rulers.
Under Mughal rule, the family enjoyed great influence and was accorded confirmatory sanads by the Emperors Aurangzeb, Alamgir, and Farukhshayar, confirming their 'Jagir' rights. Rao Nandlal Chaudhary Zamindar, upon visiting the court of Delhi, received a special place in the emperor’s court along with two jewel studded swords (now on display in the Royal British Museum under the family's name) and confirmatory sanads. Raja Savai Jai singh of Jaipur, a personal friend of his, gifted him with a special "Gold Langar" which guaranteed a special place to him in all the Durbars of India. The family’s respectability and influence over Malwa was instrumental in the ascent of the Peshwas and Holkars to rulership of this region.
Rao Nandlal Chaudhary, the founder of Indore, was the Chief Zamindar (landlord), and had an army of 2000 soldiers. In 1713, Nizam was appointed as the controller of the Deccan plateau area, which renewed the struggle between the Marathas and the Mughals.
While visiting the temple of Indreshwar near the banks of river Saraswati, Rao Nandlal found the location to be safe and strategically located, being surrounded by rivers on all sides. He started moving his people in, and constructed the fort of Shree Sansthan Bada Rawala to protect them from harassment by Mughals. The city was named Indrapur (after Lord Indreshwar), and eventually came to be known as Indore.
Baji Rao Peshwa finally took control of Malwa in 1733 A.D. Malhar Rao Holkar was one of the four signatories who guaranteed the proper fulfillment of the conditions. Upon victory the Peshwas appointed Malhar Rao Holkar as a “Subhedar”, which marked the beginning of Holkars' reign in Malwa.
Thus, Indore came to be ruled by the Maratha Maharajas of the Holkar dynasty. The dynasty's founder, Malhar Rao Holkar, (1694–1766), was granted control of Malwa Maratha armies in 1724, and in 1733, was installed as the Maratha governor of the region. By the end of his reign, the Holkar state was de facto independent. He was succeeded by his daughter Ahilyabai Holkar who ruled from 1767 to 1795. She ruled from a palace-fort at Maheshwar, south of Indore on the Narmada River. Ahilyabai Holkar was an architectural patron who donated money for the construction of Hindu temples across India. In 1818, the Holkars were defeated by the British in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, and the Holkar kingdom became a part of the British Raj. As a result of this defeat in the Battle of Mahidpur, the treaty of Mandsaur was signed, through which the Cantonment town of Mhow was handed over to the British. The treaty also decreed that the capital of the Holkar state would shift from Maheshwar to Indore.
In early 20th century, Indore was very ably ruled by Rai Bahadur Sir Siremal Bapna, who was the Prime Minister, Holkar State from 1923 through 1936, during the reign of HH Maharaja Yeshwant Rao Holkar, the last Holkar ruler under British India. His administration is credited with bringing Indore into the modern age. During his administration, Indore became one of the biggest textile manufacturing center in the country. During Sir Siremal Bapna's administration, Yeshwant Sagar Water Supply Scheme was conceived and implemented. His reign is also marked by various social reforms, promotion of Arts, Music and Sports. Indore was the home of Seth Hukumchand Jain, who became the first Indian to establish a jute mill in India. He is regarded to a pioneer of Indian industry, and a founder of several institutions and industries in Indore and nearby area.
After India's independence in 1947, Indore, along with a number of neighboring princely states, became part of the Indian state of Madhya Bharat. Indore was designated the summer capital of this newly created state. On November 1, 1956, Madhya Bharat was merged into Madhya Pradesh and Bhopal was chosen as the capital. The city palace was the seat of administration of the rulers of the Malwa region – The Holkars (26 May 1728 to 20 April 1948).
After independence, one of the leading citizens of Indore was P.S. Bapna, who was one of the most well known senior IAS officers of Madhya Pradesh. He was the son of Sir Siremal Bapna, the highly respected and long serving Prime Minister of Holkar State. Among P.S. Bapna Saheb's many achievements was the conception and implementation of the first two phases of the Narmada Water Supply Scheme in the 1970s. He was also instrumental in the formation of SGSTI Engineering College and was a creator and enhancer of many social and community organizations.
Indore has a huge concrete Cricket Bat statue with names of the players of the Indian team which won the 1971 series against West Indies led by Gary Sobers. There may not be many of its kind in the World.Sudarshan Chakra of tabla is supposed to be an Indore invention.
Indore is the first city in India to have a Bowling Alley in Sayaji Hotels, a western world favorite, addictive game.
In Indore Internet came long back in 1995 it was in CAT thru its own VSAT hub.
Indore recently had the honor of having IIM, Indore one of the six top Indian busines schools.
CAT, Indore is one amongst the eminent advanced technology research center in India.
Indore's Nehru Stadium became the first cricket groun
Indore's Nehru Stadium became the first cricket ground in India where an international cricket match had to be abandoned due to bad pitch.
There is a city Indore in West Virginia, US as well.
The Lalbagh Palace of the Holkars on the banks of the Khan River is one of the grandest monuments the Holkar dynasty left to Indore city. A reflection of their taste, grandeur and life style, its construction began in 1886 under Tukoji Rao Holkar II, and was carried out in three phases, the final phase completed in 1921 under Tukoji Rao Holkar III. ndia. It is being developed by the GIt is a blend of the baroque and renaissance styles, and in its days was one of the most elegant residences in India. It is being developed by the Government of Madhya Pradesh as a cultural centre. The main attraction is the splendidly proportioned and furnished rooms, with frescoed ceilings and guilded ornamental mouldings. The architecture and decoration of this palace, inhabited by the Holkars till 1978 reflect the highly westernized aesthetic sensibility of the later Holkars. Tukojirao III was the last incumbent of this magnificent palace. The whole complex has a total area of 28 acres and at one time had one of the best rose gardens of the country. Though simple to look from outside, the magnificent interior takes one into a dreamland of past glory. Lavishly decorated in the style of Varsailles Palace, its Italian marble columns, grand chandeliers, rich Persian carpets, flying nymphs on the ceiling, Belgium stained glass windows, Greek mythological reliefs, Italian style wall paintings, stuffed leopards and tigers are breathtaking. The ballroom has wooden floor on springs for extra bounce. The kitchen was built on the opposite bank of the river and was connected to the palace by a well lighted underground tunnel. The imposing gates of the palace are unique in Asia. A replica of the gates of Buckingham palace (London), about twice their size, were molded in cast iron and shipped from England. They carry the Holkar state emblem which means "He who tries will succeed".
The Holkar Palace (Rajwada) is close to the Chhatris, in the main square in the heart of the city. It is a seven storied building (only facade remains) built over two centuries ago. This historic palace of the Holkars is built in a mixture of Maratha, Mughal and French style. The gopura-like monumental stone and wood structure, flanked by bastions and studded with balconies and windows, is a testimony of the past grandeur of the Holkars. Its lofty entrance archway above a huge wooden door encrusted with iron studs, leads into a vast courtyard enclosed by galleried rooms, and the arcaded Ganesh Hall where state and religious functions were once held.It is now used for art exhibitions and classical music concerts. The lower three floors are made of stone and the upper floors are made of wood, which made it very vulnurable to destruction by fire. Rajwada was burnt three times in its history, and the last one in 1984 was the most devastating. The charred rubble of the rear portion has now given way to a symmetrically laid out garden featuring fountains, an artificial waterfall and some superb pieces of eleventh century sculpture.
These are exquisite cenotaphs of the three later Holkar rulers. These memorials in stone are gracefully poised on the banks of the Khan River with their pyramidal spires tapering into soaring kalashas. These are memorials built on the cremation spots of the Holkar rulers of Indore. Facing west is the cenotaph built over the ashes of another woman ruler of Malwa, Maharani Krishnabai. The other two Chhatris are of Tukoji Rao II and Shivaji Rao, father and son, and are linked by a common oblong prayer hall with ornately carved arches and pillars on a high platform along the garbha grihas containing life size statues of these rulers. A breathtaking sight at night when illuminated, the Chhatris glow etherally against the dark of the sky. An artificial lake is created in this stretch of the otherwise dry Khan River, complete with a fountain, well laid gardens on both banks and boating facility.
Many citizens of Indore have a great faith in this Ganesh temple made by Ahilya Bai. They believe that praying here fulfils one's wishes. Nearby is the dargah of Nahar Sayed. It is believed that his headless body is buried here. This is an important pilgrimage place of Naita Muslims.
Inspired by the Meenakshi temple of Madurai, four life size elephants hold an ornately decorative gate in plaster. Inside the complex, apart from the main temple of Annapurna Devi are also temples of Shiva, Kal Bhairav, and Hanuman. There is also a pravachan hall. The outer wall of the main temple is decorated with colourful reliefs from mythological stories.
Better known for its size than antiquity, this temple houses perhaps the largest Ganesh idol in the world, measuring 25 ft. from crown to foot. Created as a result of a dream to an Avantika (Ujjain) resident Shri Dadhich, it was built in 1875. The idol has a most interesting configuration of ingredients: bricks, lime stone, masala made of Gud, methi dana, soil collected from seven moksha puris: Ayodhya, Mathura, Maya, Kashi, Kanchi, Avantika, and Dwaraka, mud from stables of horse, elephant and cow, the powder of Pancharatna : heera, panna, moti, manek and pukhraj (diamond, emerald, pearl, ruby and topaz) and the holy water from all major places of pilgrimage. The metalic frame is of gold, silver, copper, brass and iron.
On the banks of the Shipra River, stands an elegant city which glorifies the Mauryan age of India. Asoka had been the King of Ujjain; his memories are sharply linked in every nook and corner of the city of Ujjain. Asoka was a great king, and always tried to expand his empire beyond its present boundaries. But afterwards, the sight of thousands of dead bodies at the Kalinga War he changed his mind and he embraced Buddhism that preaches the doctrine of Universal Love.
Omkareshwar, the sacred island, shaped like the holiest of all Hindu symbols, 'Om', has drawn to it hundreds of generations of pilgrims. Here, at the confluence of the rivers Narmada and Kaveri, the devout gather to kneel before the Jyotirlinga (one of the twelve throughout India) at the temple of Shri Omkar Mandhata. And here, as in so many of Madhya Pradesh's sacred shrines, the works of Nature complement those of man to provide a setting awe-inspiring in its magnificence.
Maheshwar was a glorious city at the dawn of Indian civilization when it was Mahishmati, capital of king Kartivarjun. This temple town on the banks of the river Narmada finds mention in the epics of Ramayana and Mahabharata. Revived to its ancient position of importance by the Holkar queen Rani Ahilyabai of Indore. Maheshwar's temples and mighty fort-complex stand in quiet beauty, mirrored in the river below.
Perched along the Vindhya ranges at an altitude of 2,000 feet, Mandu, with its natural defenses, was originally the fort capital of the Parmara rulers of Malwa. Towards the end of the 13th century, it came under the way of the Sultans of Malwa, the first of whom named it Shadiabad - 'city of joy'. And indeed the pervading spirit of Mandu was of gaiety; and its rulers built exquisite palaces like the Jahaz and Hindola Mahals, ornamental canals, baths and pavilions, as graceful and refined as those times of peace and plenty.
Patal Pani Waterfall
Waterfall is located 36 km from Indore in Madhya Pradesh. This magnificent fall The Waterfall is located 36 kms. from Indore in Madhya Pradesh. This magnificent fall is a popular picnic spot in Indore district. The stream falls from an altitude of 150 fts into the kund. It is said that the bottom of this deep kund reaches Patal (netherworld), hence the name was kept the Patal Pani.
Hanumantiya island is a newly introducted water tourism destination in Madhya Pradesh tourism. It is close to Khandwa town in Western Madhya Pradesh. It is developed & promoted by Madhya Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation. The name "Hanumantiya" is derived from local village name with same name which lies in Malhagarh Tehsil of Mandsaur district in Madhya Pradesh. State Tourism Department found this region suitable for water tourism activity so decided to develop it in which they developed the boat-clup, accommodation facility, ensured good road connectivity etc.
The other famous water body in the Indore is the choral dam. This dam is located at a distance of 45 kilometers from Indore. The Dam has a bungalow for stay which is attached to a beautiful garden setting. This dam is mainly used for irrigation as well as drinking purpose. This dam is developing as a good picnic spot in the recent days. Peoples often visit this place for get rid from various types of the tensions and leaving the tensions.
Indore is served by the Devi Ahilyabai Holkar domestic Airport. Indore airport is about 8 km from the city centre and currently handles only domestic traffic. The airport has been operating services by Indian Airlines, Jet Airways, Jet Lite, Kingfisher, Kingfisher Red and Go Air. Indore has a direct connectivity to Ahmedabad, Bhopal, Bangalore, Raipur, Nagpur, Hyderabad, Mumbai, New Delhi, Pune, Goa, Kolkata & Jabalpur.
Indore Main Railway Station of the country. In the Railway budget of 2009 Indore main railway station was listed for transformation to a modern railway along with other 300 stations across India.
Indore is one of the several places in India with both meter gauge and broad gauge railways operational. Regular train services connect Indore to most parts of the country. Electrification of the Indore - Dewas - Ujjain is currently underway.
Indore lies on the Ratlam and Akola metre gauge railway line, the longest remaining functional meter gauge line in India. This section is scheduled for conversion to standard broad gauge under Indian Railways' projected Unigauge system.
India's first of its concept - GPS & IVR enabled city buses
Indore is well connected to other parts of India through national and state highways. There are some major highways which pass through Indore and connect it to some major cities.
The major national highways passing through the city are:
National Highway No. 3 (NH3 - Agra Bombay)
National Highway No. 59 (NH 59 - Indore Ahmedabad)
National Highway No. 59A (Indore - Betul)
The Mumbai- Indore section of the National Highway No. 3 and the Ahmedabad - Indore section of the National Highway No. 59 are undergoing multilinking under the NHDP program.
Other Important Regional highways are:
State Highway No. 27 (Indore to Khandwa)
State Highway No. 34 (Indore to Jhansi)